FORMULAS
First semester General Chemistry is simple if you understand the definitions and are comfortable with algebra.

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Chem 113 General Chemistry Laboratory

  1. DENSITY = mass / volume
  2. CONCENTRATION = amount / unit
    • usually...... amount / volume
    • g / 100 mL is...... weight/volume per cent (grams per deciliter)
    • mg / Liter  approximates.....  ppm (parts per million)
  3. DILUTION........ V1C1 = V2C2
  4. MASS.... Mass is conserved
  5. MOLES, MOLECULAR WEIGHT and MOLARITY
    • Molecular Wt... AxBy = X(Atomic Weight A) + Y(Atomic Weight B)
    • Moles = mass / Molecular Weight
    • Molarity = moles / liter
  6. BALANCING Chemical Equations
    • all nucleii on one side of the equation must be found on the other
    • total electrons on one side must equal the total on the other
  7. STOICHIOMETRY
    • Limiting Reagent... reagent which will be completely used up, thus limiting the amount of product which can be formed.
    • Theoretical Yield
      • calculated from balanced equation
      • based on converting all of limiting reagent to product
    • Per Cent Yield.... % Yield = actual yield / theoretical yield
  8. CHROMATOGRAPHY
    • Retardation Factor = Rf = dist. spot moves/distance solvent moves
  9. HYDROGEN ION Concentration
    • pH = -log10[H+]
  10. IDEAL GAS LAW... P V = n R T
    • Pressure x Volume = (number of moles) x R x Temperature K
    • Units of the Gas Constant, R, must agree with those of P, V and T
  11. THERMODYNAMICS..... First Law: Energy is conserved
    • Specific Heat = energy/(gram x temperature change)
    • Rule of Dulong and Petit..... A.W.= 25/ Specific Heat (approx)
    • Heat of Solution = energy / gram
    • Molar Heat of Reaction = energy / mole
  12. SPECTROSCOPY
    • Absorbance = log10(% T blank / % T sample)
    • Beers Law.... Concentration is proportional to Absorbance