FAMILIAR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
This experiment uses the computer program HORG .
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TUTORIAL
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HYDROCARBONS  "Saturated" and "Unsaturated" hydrocarbons are chemicals composed of only carbon and hydrogen.
They are "not soluble" in water.  
Common hydrocarbons include:

gasolene, mineral oilparaffin wax, rubber, polyethylene (plastic wrap).

HYDROCARBONS can be classified as:

Saturated   (unreactive)   CnH2n+2
Unsaturated   (reactive   CnH2n-2x X=0,1,2 etc.

Hydrocarbon portions of other molecules such as triglycerides which consist of oils and fats, are also referred to as saturated or unsaturated.
Unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are particularly important in nutrition.

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ALCOHOLS
R-OH, R3C-OH
Alcohols have one carbon slightly oxidized. They are the organic "equivalent" of water, HOH.
Presence of hydroxyl groups in organic molecules increases solubility in water.
Common alcohols include...
Ethyl Alcohol, (ethanol), C2H5OH,
is a found in spirits, wines and beer.
It is used as a solvent because it dissolves completely in water and can dissolve many organic compounds.  You will use it as a solvent in making
soap.
Methyl Alcohol, (methanol), CH3OH, is used in windshield washer fluid.   It is completely soluble in water, dissolves many organic materials  and evaporates quickly.
Ethylene Glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze in an automobile radiator.
Sugars such as glucose (blood sugar), C6H12O6, and sucrose, C12H22O11 (table sugar).  Sugars   also have aldehyde or ketone groups.
polysaccharides (polymers of sugars) such as starchguar gum, cellulose, cotton contain a lot of alcohol groups. They are less soluble in water because of their high molecular weight.   DNA and RNA also contain sugars,(ribose and desoxyribose)
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ALDEHYDES
R-CHO
Aldehydes have an end carbon oxidized slightly more than an alcohol.
Aldehydes are easily oxidized to Acids. Silver ion will oxide aldehydes while the silver ion is reduced to silver metal. This is a standard procedure for silvering mirrors.
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KETONES
R-CO-R
Structurally similar to aldehydes. Not easily oxidized. Good solvents.
Acetone, CH3COCH3 Used in nail polish remover.
Sugars, are also aldehydes or ketones.
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ACIDS
R-COOH
Acids have a completely oxidized end carbon atom. The hydrogen attached to the oxygen is acidic. Acids generally have a sour taste.
Acetic Acid, CH3COOH, The active ingredient in vinegar.
Citric Acid, HOC(CH2COOH) 2COOH, is found in citrus fruit. It gives soda a tart (sour) taste.
When organic material "spoils" it is generally oxidized.  The bad odor of the spoiled material can be literally be neutralized by Sodium Bicarbonate, NaHCO3 (NaHCO3 + RCOOH --->  RCOONa + H2O + CO2)
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ESTERS R-COOR
Combination of an alcohol with an acid. Usually have pleasant odors. Used in nail Polish.
Amyl Acetate, CH3COOC5H11
, is "banana oil"
In this experiment you will make Oil of Wintergreen, an salicylic acid ester.
Plastic soda bottles are polymeric esters -(OCH2CH2O-COC6H4CO) n- (polyethylene terephthalate).  This is the same material used to make polyester thread
Vegetable oils and Animal fats are esters of glycerine ("triglycerides")
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AMINES R-NH2 (The organic equivalent of ammonia, NH3)
Hexamethylene diamine, H2NCH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2NH2, has an amine group at both ends.
Amino Acids, a combination of amine and acids are important building blocks for protein. These decomposes to amines which smell  badly
(cadaverine, putracine)
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POLYMERS (poly mer, many units) Very High molecular weight compounds made by multiple reaction of lower molecular weight compounds.
Natural polymers include Cellulose, Protein, RNA and DNA
When dissolved, polymers form viscous solutions.

Polyamides (NYLON)   n H2N(CH2) 6NH2 + n ClCO(CH2) 10COCl  --->  -(HN(CH2) 6NHCO(CH2) 10CO)n-
Protein including silk, hair and wool are also polyamides.
Guar Gum
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which dissolves in water, is a polymer.  It is crosslinked by borax. Chains of guar gum are attached to each other through borax. They become much higher in Molecular Weight and much less soluble.
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SOAP RCOONa ........(RCO2) 3 C3H5 + 3 NaOH ---> 3RCOONa + C3H5(OH) 3
The way soap works:
The R group is a hydrocarbon which dissolves in greases and oils.
The
-COONa part is an ionic salt which dissolves in water.
Dirt, which sticks to grease or oil, is washed out because the grease is emulsified.

Making soap is the opposite of making an ester.
In making soap you start with an ester and decompose it into an alcohol + the salt of an acid.
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ORGANIC REACTIONS

LINIMENT …. Preparation of Methyl Salicylate, an ESTER

MIRROR …. Oxidation of an Aldehyde

PEANUT BUTTER … Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons.

NYLON …. A Polyamide (polymer)

SLIME …. A crosslinked POLYMER

SOAP …. Hydrolyzing an ESTER

FIREFLY(Pseudo Photinus Pyralis)The Oxidation of Luminol

There is a DATA SHEET
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  RWK  2/16/00